Art Education in Palestine


Beyond Resistance Art: Art Education in Palestine

During the 36th session of UNESCO’s General Conference, the Member States voted to admit Palestine as the 195th Member of UNESCO on 31st October 2011. Although this change has led the United States to freeze its aid to Palestine, it is a significant step for the progress of education and culture in Palestine. As a newly formed Member State, very little is known about art education in Palestine and this article hopes to shed some light in this direction. When we think of art in relation to Palestine, we often think of Graffiti art on the Israeli Wall or other forms of art in relation to the political unrest between Israel and Palestine. The Israeli Wall, which annexes about fifty percent of the West Bank region in Palestine, is about 760 kilometers long and eight meters in height. Over the years, the Wall has evolved as an interesting site for ordinary people as well as artists from Palestine and elsewhere in the world, who make art on the wall to express their solidarity with the Palestinian people. Figures 1 and 2 are examples of artworks made by British Artist Banksy. These varied forms of artistic expression on the Wall have become popularly known as ‘Resistance Art’ in Palestine. 

From left to right: Figures 1 and 2 - Artworks by British artist Banksy

There is however more to art and culture in Palestine, beyond Resistance Art, and more to Palestinian life than what mainstream media generally portrays. Contrary to mainstream media’s biased portrayal of Palestinians as having negative attributes or only being faceless victims, there is more to the reality of life in Palestine.The Palestinian community has well established educational institutions, civil society organizations, infrastructure and opportunities for sports, and various forms of art practices that form an integral part of the daily life of the Palestinian people. These include literature, visual arts, folklore, music festivals, dance performances, theatre and film, as well as opportunities for education in the arts both in schools and in higher education institutions. Despite the continuous suffering of the Palestinians and daily violation of human rights under the occupation by Israeli military forces, which Palestinians and international human rights activists consider illegal, the Palestinian people's love for life and ability to find hope in the midst of despair and commitment to building the infrastructure for a viable state are what drives this vibrant and creative cultural and educational landscape. Figure 3 shows artists at the Diyar Dance Theatre performing their first production ‘Portraits of Fear’, which is a unique mix of a Palestinian folk dance (Dabka) and contemporary dance and theatre. The Diyar Dance Theatre, which was formed about four years ago, primarily includes young people in their teens through their mid-20s, who have performed throughout Europe and the Gulf countries, and more recently in the United States. Their effort is to use the arts to express issues of justice, empower young people and contribute towards peacebuilding. 

Figure 3: Artists from the Diyar Dance Theatre performing a mix of Dabka and contemporary dance & theatre

With more than half of Palestinian population under the age of 19 years, education, and art and cultural programs aimed at young people are among the fastest growing in importance and scale, and civil society organizations are increasingly seeking new ways to create opportunities for human and cultural development in Palestine. This has important implications for art education both at the school level as well as at the higher education level. As a field, art education is of increasing importance to Palestine for a number of reasons. Firstly, there are a number of gifted and talented young people who are interested in studying the arts and interested in pursuing a career in the arts, and arts education. Not everyone is interested in the sciences. Secondly, although there is a heavy emphasis on the sciences in many schools, there is a need in Palestine to open up opportunities for alternate subjects such as the arts for young people to be able to choose alternate career paths. With thousands of Palestinian college graduates graduating in engineering and business management degrees (among other subjects), there are limited job opportunities in these fields due to the political climate in Palestine and an economy that is continuously in transition. Hence, investing in the arts and arts education would help build a creative economy that can sustain artists and human resources in arts related fields, at a time when opportunities in science, engineering and management are low (See mission statement of the Dar Al-Kalima College, Palestine)

From left to right: Figures 4 and 5: Student in a Fine Art class and students in a music performance

Further, in Palestine, there are many relief and voluntary organizations that work towards human and social development, some of which engage children and young people with the arts for psychosocial support, especially in the Gaza region and refugee camps, hence educational opportunities in the arts as a therapy would be significantly valuable in Palestine. Finally, with the ongoing political unrest in Palestine, art has evolved as a significant means of expression and visual communication not only for artists but also for children and young people. The Israeli Wall, which the Palestinians and international human rights activists consider a tool of colonization and oppression has been transformed and used by Palestinians, international peace activists and artists as a platform for expression and resistance. It is at the heart of Palestinian culture as a platform of creative expression and illustration of peace, especially positive peace.

Although art education is of increasing importance to Palestine, there are several challenges in the field. For example, in schools, art is taught as a required subject from kindergarten to high school, however, there is no standard curriculum that all the schools can follow. Each school sets its own arts curriculum, which further depends on factors such as the budget allotted to art in the school, or the type of school, whether private, public or run by the United Nations, and most importantly the qualification and expertise of the teachers teaching art. More importantly, not all schools take art as seriously as they take science courses. This is primarily because in the nation-wide standardized high school matriculation exam, art is not included. Apart from these issues, the most crucial challenge facing this domain in schools, as well as secondary vocational training centers that teach art is the need for qualified teachers in art education as well as in education through the arts. Lack of human resources within Palestinian territories has been a major problem for years.  Most qualified teachers and educators are educated outside Palestine, and work outside Palestine. Furthermore, while there are many skilled visual artists teaching art, there is an increasing need for artists to be trained in teacher education. 

Figure 6: Students working on their Glass Ceramics projects

In view of these challenges, many efforts are being made to develop human resources in the field by fostering education in and through the arts, especially at the vocational and higher education level. Amongst these efforts, the Dar Al-Kalima College (of higher education) in the West Bank region of Bethlehem has been making a significant difference for the past few years. The College has been offering higher education degree courses in the arts and communication studies such as Contemporary Fine Arts, Jewelry Production and Design, Glass and Ceramics, Documentary Film Production, Music Performance, Drama and Theater Performance, Tour Guiding and Culinary Art. Figure 6 shows Dar Al-Kalima College students working on their Glass Ceramics projects. Figures 7 shows a Dar Al-Kalima College student in Jewelry Production and Design class and Figure 8 shows another student in a Ceramics class. More recently, the College has started offering an Art Education degree course targeted especially for individuals interested in teaching art in primary and secondary education as well as artists interested in teaching the arts in schools and vocational centers. Further, the College provides a forum and a bridge for international communication that allows young people in the arts and education, to study with people from diverse geographical, religious and multicultural backgrounds, thereby promoting a culture of pluralism and diversity in education. 

From left to right: Figures 7 and 8: Student in a Jewelry design class and student in a Ceramics class

Education is a key component in fostering a sustainable economy, and building a culture of peace in Palestine. The mission of Dar al-Kalima College is to provide quality education in the arts and communication studies that meets the social, cultural and economic needs of the people. Further, by offering alternate educational opportunities in the arts, apart from what other higher education institutions already offer, the College not only fills the gap in Palestinian Higher Education, but also contributes towards the much needed human resource development in the arts and education. In a community with limited natural resources and restricted access to them, the College believes that Palestine's human resources and its art and culture are its most valuable capital. Hence, development of the arts and education are critical for the future of the Palestinian people.

Figure 9: An installation by a student at an art exhibition in Dar Al-Kalima College

The Dar al-Kalima College and its umbrella institution, the Diyar Consortium represent the cultural, artistic and intellectual hub of the Palestinian people. By cultivating talent, providing education in the arts, and promoting the cultural heritage and identity of Palestine, the Consortium and the College in particular are empowering the youth to become future artists, educators and proactive citizens of Palestine.

About the Author

This article was written with the help of a researcher and resident of West Bank who divides her time between Palestine and the United States. For more information, please contact the editor. For more information on Dar Al-Kalima College, please visit the site (in Arabic).

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